Abstract, Original article published in International Journal of Molecular Sciences.
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated genetic skin disease. The underlying pathomechanisms involve complex interaction between the innate and adaptive immune system. T cells interact with dendritic cells, macrophages, and keratinocytes, which can be mediated by their secreted cytokines. In the past decade, biologics targeting tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-23, and IL-17 have been developed and approved for the treatment of psoriasis. These biologics have dramatically changed the treatment and management of psoriasis. In contrast, various triggering factors can elicit the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Recent studies suggest that the exacerbation of psoriasis can lead to systemic inflammation and cardiovascular comorbidity. In addition, psoriasis may be associated with other auto-inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. In this review, we summarize the risk factors, which can be divided into two groups (namely, extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors), responsible for the onset and exacerbation of psoriasis in order to facilitate its prevention.